Lluis Bonet and Mariano Martín Zamorano – Cultural policies in illiberal democracies: a conceptual framework based on the Polish and Hungarian governing experiences
Abdulkerim Sen – Articulations of Islamic nationalism in the educational reform discourse of ‘new Turkey’
Hristo Panchugov and Ivan Nachev – Bulgaria: Creeping EU-Scepticism—The Tacit Consent that Fuels Populism
By illiberalism, we define a strain of political culture, a set of institutional reforms (such as assaults on an independent judiciary) and broader societal processes (such as declining trust in liberal democratic institutions) that, over the past two decades, has emerged in response to liberalism as experienced by various countries. Adherents of illiberalism argue that, in the face of a liberalism that has “gone too far,” it is time to reassert the rights of the collective, or of an alleged silent majority, by restoring national sovereignty in various spheres: politically, by rejecting supranational and multilateral institutions in favor of the nation-state and preferring a strong leader with large powers over a parliamentary system; economically, through at least partial protectionism; culturally, by refusing multiculturalism and minority rights in favor of an essentialist definition of the nation, its members, and its genuine cultural attributes.