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Photo: “Budapest: Hungarian Parliament“, by Jorge Franganillo licensed under CC BY 2.0. Hue modified from the original

Bozoki, Andras, and Daniel Hegedus. “The Rise of Authoritarianism in the European Union.” In The Condition of Democracy, 1st ed., 23. Routledge, 2021.


This chapter argues that, due to its hitherto overlooked characteristics, the Orbán regime belongs to a class of its own among hybrid regimes. The unique properties of this Hungarian hybrid regime follow from the fact that it is part of the European Union, which is made up of democratic member states. The EU is both the loci of ‘domestic’ and ‘foreign’ policy-making for its members. Consequently, the EU functions as a ‘regime-sustaining’ and ‘regime-constraining’ factor for Hungary, which compels us to describe the current governmental structure of Hungary as an ‘externally constrained hybrid regime’.

The Illiberalism Studies Program studies the different faces of illiberal politics and thought in today’s world, taking into account the diversity of their cultural context, their intellectual genealogy, the sociology of their popular support, and their implications on the international scene.