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Photo:We voted leave“, by Mark Ramsay licensed under CC BY 2.0. Hue modified from the original.

Buhari, Didem, Christian Kaunert, and Seckin Baris Gulmez, eds. Transforming Europe Through Crises: Thin, Thick, Parochial and Global Dynamics. Taylor & Francis, 2022.


‘How many Europes?’ is a critical question that led to several attempts to analyse European crises and transformations globally. This book builds upon the argument that Europe cannot be reduced to a singular dynamic, identity or vision, but rather provides a four-fold taxonomy: Thin, Thick, Parochial and Global Europe.

The book contributors aim to respond to the emerging necessity to incorporate both the parochial dynamics unmaking Europe and the globalist dynamics decentering Europe into the analysis of European crises and transformations in diverse sectors ranging from security and foreign policy to the rule of law and democracy. Accordingly, this book is unpacking Europe in a time of severe crises facing the EU—such as Brexit, the Syrian refugee crisis, Catalan secessionism, the rise of far right, and terrorism—, which have accelerated the resurgence of formerly marginalized and repressed dynamics as influential trends in national, regional and global politics. It reveals an ongoing hegemonic struggle over the representation of Europe among ‘many Europes’ involving two separate integrationist models of regionalization —or ‘Europe-making’— and two distinct dynamics that have sought to fragment and de-centre the European Union through nationalism and globalism respectively.

The chapters in this book were originally published as a special issue of European Politics and Society.

Table of Contents

Introduction: Transforming Europe through crises: thin, thick, parochial and global dynamics – Didem Buhari, Christian Kaunert and Seckin Baris Gulmez

  1. Theorizing many Europes: a four-fold taxonomy – Didem Buhari and Seckin Baris Gulmez
  2. The EU’s ‘actions- without- sanctions’? The politics of the rule of law crisis in many Europes – Digdem Soyaltin-Colella
  3. Thick Europe, ontological security and parochial Europe: the re-emergence of far-right extremism and terrorism after the refugee crisis of 2015 – Christian Kaunert, Joana de Deus Pereira and Mike Edwards
  4. ‘Europe’ of populist radical right and the case of Lega of Salvini: pioneer of a ‘Parochial Europe’? – Selcen Öner
  5. The EEAS navigating foreign policy paradigms – Knud Erik Jørgensen, Jonas Gejl Kaas, Tonny Brems Knudsen, Gert Tinggaard Svendsen and Laura Landorff
  6. The high representative’s role in EU countering terrorism: policy entrepreneurship and thick, thin and global Europe – Joana de Deus Pereira and Christian Kaunert
  7. ‘Many Europes’ vs. secessionism: the case of Catalonia – Seckin Baris Gulmez and Didem Buhari
  8. The EU’s response to the Syrian refugee crisis: a battleground among many Europes – Beken Saatçioğlu

The Illiberalism Studies Program studies the different faces of illiberal politics and thought in today’s world, taking into account the diversity of their cultural context, their intellectual genealogy, the sociology of their popular support, and their implications on the international scene.