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Bilal, Fazal Elahi, Muhammad Akif Rashid, and Rashida Abbas. “Fall of Kabul: A Critical Analysis of The Failure of the American’s Liberal Norms.” Journal of Development and Social Sciences 3, no. 2 (2022): 1139-1148.


The objective of the study is to examine the degree of failure factors of the phenomena of American Liberal norms in Afghanistan. Under the backdrop of the Doha agreement on 15 August 2021, the fall of Kabul accrued, Taliban entered Kabul without confrontation from the Afghan military forces. A qualitative method for in-depth analysis was employed, using questionnaire technique. America spending almost a trillion dollars, two decades presence with more than seven lac allied military forces, failed to cultivate liberal values in afghan society. This study concludes that neither liberal norms/ values nor did the democratic process take roots because, values were superficial, creating synthetic, and engineered civil society. Hence, the Free Market economy neither has benefits for the grass root level nor provides sustainable development. This study recommends that Liberal norms should always be introduced in its true sense, keeping in view of the native culture, traditions as well as its compatibility.

The Illiberalism Studies Program studies the different faces of illiberal politics and thought in today’s world, taking into account the diversity of their cultural context, their intellectual genealogy, the sociology of their popular support, and their implications on the international scene.