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Grgić, Gorana. “The Changing Dynamics of Regionalism in Central and Eastern Europe: The Case of the Three Seas Initiative.” Geopolitics (2021): 1-23.


As the Central and Eastern European (CEE) states undergo a populist-nationalist revival, perhaps the most perplexing phenomenon has been the vibrancy of subregional cooperation initiatives. The Three Seas Initiative (TSI) is the most recent platform to join the list. While it is still too early to deliver a verdict on the effect this initiative will have on the future of European integration, it is indisputable that it marks a shift in the dynamics of European subregionalism. Namely, some of the states that are spearheading and supporting the initiative seem to be openly contesting European unity, which runs counter to the previous initiatives that were formed in support of further EU integration. This article analyses CEE’s standing within the EU in the context of TSI and argues that both rationalist and normative foundations of the most recent wave of subregionalism have significantly changed compared to the previous instances of subregional cooperation.

The Illiberalism Studies Program studies the different faces of illiberal politics and thought in today’s world, taking into account the diversity of their cultural context, their intellectual genealogy, the sociology of their popular support, and their implications on the international scene.